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  •   State: 
    New Mexico
    Chaves County
      County FIPS: 
    33°23′14″N 104°31′41″W
      Area total: 
    29.78 sq mi (77.12 km²)
      Area land: 
    29.72 sq mi (76.96 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.06 sq mi (0.16 km²)
    3,573 ft (1,089 m)
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Roswell, NM
    Mountain Standard Time (MST) UTC-7:00; Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) UTC-6:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    1,629.49 residents per square mile of area (629.14/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

As of the 2020 census it had a population of 48,422, making it the fifth-largest city in New Mexico. It is home to the New Mexico Military Institute (NMMI), founded in 1891. Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge is located a few miles northeast of the city on the Pecos River. The Roswell incident was named after the town, though the crash site of the alleged UFO was some 75 miles (121 km) from Roswell and closer to Corona. Roswell's tourism industry is based on aerospace engineering and ufology museums and businesses, as well as alien-themed and spacecraft-themed iconography. New Mexican cuisine restaurants, such as Martin's Capitol Café, are located near downtown on Main Street, near the International UFO Museum and Research Center. The city received the All-America City Award multiple times, in 197879 and 2002. It was a site for much of Robert H. Goddard's early rocketry work in the 1930s. In 1967, Roswell Walker Air Force Base was decommissioned. After the closure of the base, the park was renamed Walker/MIA Park. The park displays a piece of the Berlin Wall, presented to the city of Roswell by the German Air Force. The German prisoners of war were used to do major infrastructure work in Roswell. Some of the rocks used to create the outline of the North Spring River were later covered with a thin layer of concrete. In the 1980s, a crew cleared the river bed just south of the iron cross and revealed the outline once more.


Roswell is the primary city name, but also Border Hill, Pine Lodge are acceptable city names or spellings, Elkins, Roswell Industrial Air Cente on the other hand no longer accepted or obsolete and are no longer used as a designation. The first non-indigenous settlers of the area around Roswell were a group of pioneers from Missouri, who attempted to start a settlement 15 miles (24 km) southwest of what is now Roswell in 1865. A major aquifer was discovered when merchant Nathan Jaffa had a well drilled in his back yard on Richardson Avenue in 1890, resulting in the area's first major growth and development spurt. Roswell has benefited from interest in the alleged UFO incident of 1947, allegedly an extraterrestrial spacecraft and its alien occupants. Since the late 1970s, the incident has been the subject of intense controversy and of a conspiracy theory regarding a classified program named "Project Mogul" Many UFO proponents maintain that an alien craft was found and its occupants were captured, and that the military then engaged in a cover-up. In 1967, the Walker Air Force Base was decommissioned. After the closure of the base, Roswell capitalized on its pleasant climate and reinvented itself as a retirement community. It hosted the record-breaking skydive by Felix Baumgartner on October 14, 2012. During World War II, a prisoner-of-war camp was located in nearby Orchard Park. Some POWs used rocks of different sizes to create the outline of an iron cross among the stones covering the north bank. Later, the iron cross was covered with a thin layer of concrete. In the 1980s, a crew cleaning the river bed cleared off the concrete and revealed the outline once more. The park just south of the cross was then known as Iron Cross Park.


Roswell is located in the High Great Plains of southeastern New Mexico. It has a BSk or BSh semiarid climate according to the Köppen climate classification. The North American monsoon occurs during the summer, and can bring torrential downpours, severe thunderstorms (with high winds and hail) and sometimes even tornadoes. Summers are very hot (as is common with the High Plains of New Mexico and Colorado) and averages around 30 days per year when the temperature rises above 100 °F (38 °C), which can be unpleasant. Winters are cool, but usually sunny, and snowfall can occur. Fall is usually warm and pleasant, but can be cold late in the season. Snow is possible in October and November. Roswell has a total area of 29.9 square miles (77.5 km²), of which 29.8 square miles is land and 0.04 sq mi (0.1 km²) is covered by water. It is located on the U.S. Route 70, which leads northeast 111 mi (179 km) to Clovis and 117 mi (188 km) west to Alamogordo. The record high in Roswell is 114°F (46 °C) on June 27, 1994, and the record low in the city is 24 °C on January 11, 1962, and February 8, 1933. The city has a population of 2,816. It was founded in 1839.


As of the 2010 census, 48,366 people, in 17,506 households, resided in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 58.3% Hispanics or Latinos, 36.5% White, 2.0% Native American and 1.8% African American. The median income for a household in the City was $43,372, and per capita income was $22,119 (2015-2019 in 2019 dollars) In 2019, 19.7% of the population were living below the poverty line. The city's population was distributed as 26.5 per cent under 18, while 15.6 per cent were 65 years of age or older. It is located on the banks of the San Francisco Bay, which was once the site of one of the world's largest oil refineries. It was also the location of the U.S. Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, which took place between 1861 and 1865. The Battle was followed by the Battle of the Bulge, which occurred between 1863 and 1864. The battle was the first to be fought in what is now known as the Battlefields of the Sonoran Desert, which is located in the western part of the state. The town is now home to the University of California, San Diego, which has a campus that was founded in 1881. It has a population of more than 50,000, and the city is home to a number of colleges and universities. It also has a National Guard base that was established in the late 1800s.


Eastern New Mexico University-Roswell offers several certificate and associate programs. New Mexico Military Institute offers four-year high school and two-year associate college-degree programs. International Law Enforcement Academy, also known as ILEA, is a training academy run by the United States federal government to train law enforcement officers from around the world in the latest law enforcement techniques. Public schools include Roswell Independent School District, Mountain View Middle School, and Sierra Middle School. Private schools include All Saints Catholic School, a pre-K through eighth-grade Catholic school, and a Junior Kindergarten through 9th grade classical school. The town is home to the New Mexico State Museum, which is located in the town of Roswell, New Mexico. It is also the home of the University of New Mexico, which offers several degree and certificate programs, including a bachelor's and master's degree program. It also hosts the National Museum of Natural History, a museum of American History, and the Museum of Science and Industry, which has a collection of more than 100,000 objects. The city's main square is called the Plaza de Cahuenga, which was built in the 1930s and is located on the banks of the Rio Grande River. It was named after the city's first mayor, William "Bill" Ponce de Lezlie, who was elected to office in 1947. It has been the site of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947-1954, and has been home to many congressmen, senators, and governors.


The Roswell Invaders play in the Pecos League of professional baseball clubs. The Invaders wear lime-green uniforms to represent the city's extraterrestrial connections. Home games are played at the Joe Bauman Ballpark. Roswell was home to the Roswell Giants (1923), Roswell Sunshiners (1937), and Roswell Rockets (1949-1956) The Pirates were an affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1959. Baseball Hall of Fame inductee Willie Stargell played for the 1959 Roswell Pirates. The Pirates played in the Panhandle-Pecos Valley League (1924), West Texas-New Mexico League (2723), Longhorn League (37), Southwestern League (491955), and Sophomore League (1959) The Invaders play their home games in Roswell, Texas, where they have a population of about 2,000. They have a team doctor, a dentist, a personal trainer, and a hairdresser. They also have a dog, a parrot, a cat, and two horses. They are known as the "Roswell Rangers" and the "Rockets of Roswell" Roswell has a baseball history that dates back to the early 20th century, when the city was part of the Texas League. The city also had a baseball team called the "Giants" in the early 1920s. The "R Rockets" were a member of the West Texas League in the late 1930s and early 1940s, when they played in several leagues.


Roswell Air Center is served by American Airlines via its American Eagle regional airline affiliate. Its former name, Roswell International Air Center, still appears in some references and on some local signage. Currently there is no intercity passenger service. BNSF Railway provides freight services. Pecos Trails Transit serves major highways and bus routes in Roswell. Roswell is located in the U.S. state of New Mexico, near the border with New Mexico and New Mexico. The city's population is around 4,000. It has a population of about 3,000, according to the 2010 census. It is the largest city in the state, followed by New Mexico with 2,500, and followed by Texas with 1,800. The town's largest employer is Roswell Independent School District, which has more than 1,000 employees. Its population is about 2,200, compared to 2,000 for Albuquerque and 2,100 for Los Angeles. The largest employer in the city is Peco Trails Transit, which serves major highway routes and major bus routes. It also serves major railroads such as the BNSf Railway and U.S. Route 70. The airport is located near the town of Roswell, which is the state's largest city, with a population around 3,200. It was the site of the first air hub in the United States, in the early 20th century. The Roswell Airport was built in the mid-20th century as a hub for air travel.

Local industry

Roswell is home to Leprino Foods, one of the world's largest mozzarella factories. It is also the location of the former Transportation Manufacturing Corporation factory, best known for producing various iterations of the RTS city bus since 1987. The factory was operated by Nova Bus from 1994 to 2003 and subsequently by Millennium Transit Services. The city is also home to the U.S. Air Force Academy, which was founded in Roswell in 1961. The U.N. World Trade Center is located in the city, and was opened in 1993. It was the first international airport in the United States, opening in 1994. It has since become a hub for air travel, especially for the United Nations and other international delegations. It also has a number of other businesses, such as a bank, a car dealership, and an airline. The town is also known as the birthplace of the New Mexico Rangers football team, which won the Super Bowl in 1988. The Roswell High School football team won the National Championship in 1988 and 1989. The school's football team also won the World Cup in 1991 and 1992. The football team was founded by former New Mexico Gov. Bill Richardson in the 1960s and 1970s. The team was known as "The Red Devils" and was nicknamed after the Red Devils' mascot, the Red Devil. The Red Devils won the 1996 World Cup for the first time in the history of the tournament, beating the South Carolina Aggies in the final game.

Cultural attractions

The Roswell Museum maintains an exhibit that includes a recreation of Goddard's rocket engine development workshop. The Roswell Artist-in-Residence (RAIR) program has an associated museum, the Anderson Museum of Contemporary Art which features more than 200 artists in the collection. Roswell's tourism industry is based on aerospace engineering and ufology museums and businesses, as well as alien-themed and spacecraft-themed iconography. The town has a population of about 2,000. It is located in the eastern part of the U.S. state of New Mexico, near the border with New Mexico and New Mexico. The city is home to the Roswell Air Force Base, which was built in the 1950s. The airport has a runway that is used to test rockets and other aircraft. It also has a planetarium and a collection of fine art. It was the site of the first manned space flight in the United States in the 1960s. It has been home to a number of space-related events, including the Apollo 11 moon landing and the launch of the Saturn V rocket in 1968. It's also home to an array of aerospace-related businesses, such as a rocket-making facility and a space tourism company. The community has a history of being involved in the aerospace industry, and has been involved in space exploration since the mid-20th century. The area is also known as the birthplace of the Wright Brothers and the Apollo 13 mission, which took place in the late 1800s.

Notable residents

The town of Roswell, New Mexico, is home to a number of notable people. The town was founded by pioneer, landowner, rancher, and politician John Chisum in 1894. It is also the birthplace of John Denver, Roy Rogers, Sam Donaldson, and Roger Staubach. Roswell is also home to the U.S. Air Force base at Walker Air Force Base, which was built in the 1930s. The city's population is about 6,000. It was the site of the Battle of the Santa Ysabel, which took place in the early 1900s. It also hosted the opening of the New Mexico Turnpike in the late 1800s, which led to the development of the state's first major highway, the Santa Fe Road. The Roswell Airport is located in the town and is located on the Santa Isabel River, which runs through the center of the town. It has a population of about 5,000, with the majority of its residents living in or around the town of about 4,500. The community has been home to many notable people, including: Bobby Baldock, a federal appellate judge (Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals), Tom Brookshier, professional football player and sportscaster, and Louise Holland Coe, the first woman elected to New Mexico Senate, first woman to run for U.S. Congress, 1894-1985. It's also the home of: Max Coll, 15-term New Mexico House Representative (1966-1970, 1980-2004), grandson of James F. Hinkle, and Nancy Lopez, LPGA Hall of Fame golfer.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico = 99. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 36. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 99. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Roswell = 6.1 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 48,422 individuals with a median age of 34.6 age the population grows by 1.96% in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 1,629.49 residents per square mile of area (629.14/km²). There are average 2.53 people per household in the 17,422 households with an average household income of $33,339 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 6.80% of the available work force and has dropped -1.89% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 29.42%. The number of physicians in Roswell per 100,000 population = 177.2.


The annual rainfall in Roswell = 12.3 inches and the annual snowfall = 10.5 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 50. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 279. 93 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 24.1 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 48, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico which are owned by the occupant = 61.25%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 42 years with median home cost = $121,570 and home appreciation of -6.86%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $6.07 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,373 per student. There are 14.9 students for each teacher in the school, 785 students for each Librarian and 608 students for each Counselor. 6.19% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 10.04% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 6.62% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Roswell's population in Chaves County, New Mexico of 2,049 residents in 1900 has increased 23,63-fold to 48,422 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 50.90% female residents and 49.10% male residents live in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico.

    As of 2020 in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico are married and the remaining 44.68% are single population.

  • 17.9 minutes is the average time that residents in Roswell require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    77.42% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 14.63% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 0.70% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 2.90% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico, 61.25% are owner-occupied homes, another 27.89% are rented apartments, and the remaining 10.86% are vacant.

  • The 60.05% of the population in Roswell, Chaves County, New Mexico who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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